Explicit and implicit ground roughness modeling
In the computational model (CFD), ground roughness effect on the wind flow is modeled either using explicit roughness element discretization (provided that the computational cost is affordable) or implicitly, for example, by using fractal surfaces.
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Abdi, D. and Bitsuamlak, G.T. (2014). Numerical evaluation of the effect of multiple roughness changes. Wind and Structures, 19(6), 585-601.